Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (/ˌmɒntɪˈsɔːri/ MON-tiss-OR-ee, Italian: [maˈriːa montesˈsɔːri]; August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori broke gender barriers and expectations when she enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. She soon had a change of heart and began medical school at the Sapienza University of Rome, where she graduated – with honors – in 1896. Her educational method is still in use today in many public and private schools throughout the world.
Rita Levi-Montalcini OMRI OMCA (US: /ˌleɪvi ˌmoʊntɑːlˈtʃiːni, ˌlɛv-, ˌliːvi
ˌmɒntəlˈ-/, Italian: [ˈriːta ˈlɛːvi montalˈtʃiːni]; 22 April 1909 – 30 December
2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology. She
was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with colleague
Stanley Cohen for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF). From 2001 until
her death, she also served in the Italian Senate as a Senator for Life. This
honor was given due to her significant scientific contributions. On 22 April
2009, she became the first Nobel laureate ever to reach the age of 100, and
the event was feted with a party at Rome's City Hall. At the time of her
death, she was the oldest living Nobel laureate.
Margherita Hack Knight Grand Cross OMRI (Italian: [marɡeˈriːta ˈ(h)ak]; 12 June 1922 – 29 June 2013) was an Italian astrophysicist and scientific disseminator. The asteroid 8558 Hack, discovered in 1995, was named in her honour.
Samantha Cristoforetti (Italian pronunciation: [saˈmanta kristofoˈretti]; born 26 April 1977, in Milan) is an Italian European Space Agency astronaut, former Italian Air Force pilot and engineer. She holds the record for the longest uninterrupted spaceflight by a European astronaut (199 days, 16 hours), and until June 2017 held the record for the longest single space flight by a woman until this was broken by Peggy Whitson and later by Christina Koch. She is also the first Italian woman in space. Samantha Cristoforetti is also known as the first person who brewed an espresso in space.
Artemisia Lomi or Artemisia Gentileschi (US: /ˌdʒɛntɪˈlɛski, -tiːˈ-/, Italian: [arteˈmiːzja dʒentiˈleski]; July 8, 1593 – c. 1656) was an Italian Baroque painter, now considered one of the most accomplished seventeenth-century artists working in the dramatic style of Caravaggio. In an era when women had few opportunities to pursue artistic training or work as professional artists, Artemisia was the first woman to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence and had an international clientele.
Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was an Italian physicist and academic. She received a doctoral degree in Philosophy from the University of Bologna in May 1732. She was the first woman to earn a professorship in physics at a university. She is recognized as the first woman in the world to be appointed a university chair in a scientific field of studies. Bassi contributed immensely to the field of science while also helping to spread the study of Newtonian mechanics through Italy.
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (UK: /ænˈjeɪzi/ an-YAY-zee, US: /ɑːnˈ-/ ahn-, Italian: [maˈriːa ɡaeˈtaːna aɲˈɲɛːzi, -ɲeːz-]; 16 May 1718 – 9 January 1799) was an Italian mathematician, philosopher, theologian, and humanitarian. She was the first woman to write a mathematics handbook and the first woman appointed as a mathematics professor at a university.
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (US: /kɔːrˌnɑːroʊ pɪˈskoʊpiə/, Italian: [ˈɛːlena luˈkrɛttsja korˈnaːro piˈskɔːpja]) or Elena Lucrezia Corner (Italian: [korˈnɛr]; 5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), also known in English as Helen Cornaro, was a Venetian philosopher of noble descent who in 1678 became one of the first women to receive an academic degree from a university, and the first to receive a Doctor of Philosophy degree.